Here is a set of notes and answers I am starting to compile for Greek: An Intensive Course, Second Revised Edition, by Hardy Hansen and Gerald M. Quinn. Errata, comments, suggestions, and any other feedback may be e-mailed to me or left as a comment.

If you would like to help encourage quicker completion of these notes, see here for a way you can help do that.

Present total, 13 July 2013: $38

Update, 12 March 2008: Unit II posted, correction to Unit I posted

Update, 8 July 2008: correction to Unit I posted

Update, 5 February 2009: Another correction to Unit I posted, Unit III posted

Update, 20 March 2009: Yet another correction to Unit I posted, correction to Unit III posted, Unit IV posted

Update, 19 December 2009: Unit V posted, world comes to an end

Update, 17 June 2010: Unit VI posted, good intentions to get through Unit X by end of summer announced

Update, 18 November 2010: Corrections posted to Unit V

Update, 15 March 2013: Corrections posted to Unit VI, Unit VII posted, gasp heard ’round the world

Update, 1 May 2013: Unit VIII posted — a day late, apologies

Update, 22 May 2013: Corrections posted to Unit VIII

Update, 13 July 2013: Corrections posted to Unit IV

Update, 10 August 2013: Corrections posted to Unit V

Hansen & Quinn Notes and Answer Key, Introduction and Unit 1 (Revised, 3 January 2008; corrected, 12 March 2008. 8 July 2008, 5 February 2009, 20 March 2009)

H&Q notes and answer key, unit II (posted 12 March 2008, updated 5 February 2009)

H&Q notes and answer key, unit III (posted 5 February 2009, corrected 20 March 2009, additional correction 21 February 2011)

H&Q notes and answer key, unit IV (posted 20 March 2009, corrected 13 July 2013, corrected again 12 August 2013)

H&Q notes and answer key, unit V (posted 19 December 2009, corrected 16 February 2010 — did I really use the word “negatived”? — , corrected again 18 November 2010, and still again 10 August 2013)

H&Q notes and answer key, Unit VI (posted 17 June 2010)

H&Q notes and answer key, Unit VII (posted 15 March 2013, corrected 12 August 2013)

H&Q notes and answer key, Unit VIII (posted 1 May 2013, corrected 22 May 2013, corrected again 12 August 2013)

Additional resources:

E. A. Sophocles’ Glossary of Later and Byzantine Greek

Church of Greece’s Myrobiblos: Home of the Greek Bible

Greek Liturgical Texts on Analogion

101 Responses to “Greek resources”

  1. 1 TMS 2 February 2008 at 11:04 am

    I was delighted to find your blog and your discussion of Unit 1 (not least of all the answer key!). I am just starting to study Ancient Greek, and regretfully I am doing it on my own at this point, so I do hope you keep up the great work! Your effort is much appreciated!

  2. 2 Richard Barrett 2 February 2008 at 11:12 am

    Hi TMS–hope you find it useful and they don’t lead you astray. I am really close to being done with the notes for Unit 2, so hopefully it won’t be too long before they’re posted. If there are specific questions you need answered, e-mail me (richard_barrett (at) and I’ll do what I can to at least try to not confuse you.


  3. 3 SSN 4 September 2008 at 1:58 pm

    Hi! I am also a new student to ancient Greek and I find your resources quite helpful! Thanks for your hard work, know that it is appreciated and much needed, and please, keep it up!


  4. 4 Richard Barrett 4 September 2008 at 2:08 pm

    Chaire! Glad you find it useful — please let me know of any errors you find (inevitable), and I really hope to have unit 3 up soon.



  5. 5 Alex 2 March 2009 at 10:35 am

    I echo SSN!!!

    Having restarted Greek after 46 years, I really need this. I don’t want to attend classes until I reach the stage of reading unadapted texts, so self-study is my only option. Today’s teaching methods are so different from the English private schools of the 1960’s. Then, the methods of drumming Greek into the student was, a grammar, LA Wilding, rote learning and the cane!!

    When’s the next unit due?

    Thanks again.


    • 6 Richard Barrett 2 March 2009 at 10:37 am

      I’m glad you find it useful, Alex! I will try to get the next unit up within the next two to three weeks.

  6. 7 Alex 2 March 2009 at 1:24 pm

    I’ve taken the liberty of posting this link on the forum at (search ‘hansen’ in ‘learning greek’ forum) as there are other home students who have been requesting an answer key. There are quite a few in this predicament so your work is invaluable.

  7. 8 david mitchell 2 March 2009 at 3:02 pm

    I have been waiting for someone to supplement this text for almost a year now. Having studied Greek before (along with a few other classical languages) I do not need long drawn out explanations, and so this is my favorite text. And now its only flaw is being corrected on this site. Thank you very much.

  8. 9 david mitchell 2 March 2009 at 3:44 pm

    whoa, i just noticed that this process is going on a lot slower than i’d expected. i actually plan to finish this text by late june so i will not be getting the benefits i would like. but the site is still good and i hope the best for the writer.

    • 10 Richard Barrett 2 March 2009 at 3:47 pm

      It’s going on more slowly than expected because the writer works full-time, is a 3/4 time grad student, and also has church responsibilities that take up several hours each week. This is being done on the margins, to be sure, but the writer does not have time for it to be otherwise. He is nonetheless committed to getting it done before the fiery death of the universe.

  9. 11 Douglas 19 March 2009 at 1:56 pm

    Richard –

    This site is incredibly helpful. Thank you so much for your selfless hard work and contribution to my learning Greek.

  10. 12 joanna litjens 22 March 2009 at 1:22 pm

    Dear Sir,

    I am pleased with the key to Greek, an intensive course. I passed my exams Latin and Greek at school (the thing between the …grade and the university) and since a couple of years I study on my own. Two years ago my husband fell seriously ill and I had to interrupt this hobby. Now that he is on his way back I have chosen this book, because of it’s high level and becauseI felt that I should repeat the complete material. At school there was indeed no attention paid to the accents etc. So I was glad to learn something new: placing spiriti etc. I did do the exercises and drills on p.11-14 and I am very curious if I did do them in the right way. Would you know a way of getting the answers?? Anyway, thank for publishing the answers to the exercises on the web.

    Kind regards,

    Joanna Litjens, The Netherlands

    • 13 Richard Barrett 22 March 2009 at 4:31 pm

      Hi Joanna,

      If you want to post your answers in a comment, I can offer you my thoughts (as could others). I don’t know of any other answer key for Hansen and Quinn, hence why I’m doing this one.

  11. 14 joanna litjens 24 March 2009 at 1:40 pm

    Hi Richard,

    Thank for your quick reaction and your offer. However,my Greek exercises are on a different computer without internet and I commented all the exercises in Dutch.Since I like to quickly continue my studies (although I am 69 years old), I would suggest that we leave things as they are. I have done them in a serious way so I know I have done my best. Thank you once more for your kindness.

    Greetings from Joanna

  12. 15 Jane Boswell 13 June 2009 at 9:41 am

    When will you complete the answer key? We are quite desperate!

    • 16 Richard Barrett 13 June 2009 at 2:03 pm

      Working on it — I hope to have the next unit posted reasonably soon. If anybody felt like supporting the effort via the TipJoy tip jar, that would at least give me a measure of who is waiting for it and how urgently.

  13. 17 David Gates 27 June 2009 at 8:52 pm

    So happy to have found your site on H&Q. I bought this book to learn Greek at home and got up to Chapter 8 before things started getting shaky. Now I’ve got the courage to go the distance. I’ve also get a pile of 3X5’s and Cargo shorts — all this due to you. Thanks!


  14. 19 Anonymous 14 August 2009 at 9:57 am

    I check everyday to see if you have posted chapter V

    • 20 Richard Barrett 14 August 2009 at 3:08 pm

      I check every day to see if they’re ready! Soon now, promise. Being out of the country hasn’t helped.

      • 21 Jeff B. 20 September 2009 at 6:16 am

        Thanks for doing this! But given the limited time you have to spend on it, mightn’t it be more useful to hit the problem areas first rather than working chapter-by-chapter? From my point of view (having done up to chapter 11), chapter 8 (participles) should be the highest priority – I’d bet that’s where most people hit a hard wall (I spent months on that chapter, having no help) – followed by chapter 7 (middle voice), and then the rest (of course I can’t say what’s likely to be difficult beyond ch. 11 yet). (Maybe chapter 1 first, for monolingual people, but you’ve already done that!) There’s really nothing very challenging in the first few chapters, except memorizing lots of stuff that you can’t really help with, so I don’t think you’re getting much bang for your buck so far. [I just wish you’d get ahead of me, so I can use this :(]

  15. 22 Alex 25 September 2009 at 9:30 am


    Glad to see you’re continuing with the answer keys. Very much appreciated.

    Thought you’d be interested to know that I had a mail from Hardy Hansen recently, and though his department is not in agreement with producing a key, they will in the near future, make available an audio version of the drills. IMO, that goes a long way to making the book more useable for the independent learner.



  16. 23 Sean 29 October 2009 at 12:31 pm

    Πολύ ωράια ιστοσελίδα, κι άκρως ενδιαφέρουσα. Ομολογουμένως μου φαίνεται λίγο περίεργο που τόσοι άνθρωποι ενδιαφέρονται να μάθουν ελληνικά. Δυστυχώς στην Ελλάδα η (σωστή) χρήση των ελληνικών παραβλέπεται και παραγκωνίζεται ολοένα και περισσότερα προς χάρη ιδιαιτέρως των αγγλικών. Η αμερικανική – κυρίως – πολιτιστική εισαγωγή γίνεται αιτία ώστε αρκετοί Έλληνες να ξεχνούν τον πλούτο, το βάθος και την ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας.

    (For those playing along at home: “Very good website, and extremely interesting. Certainly, it seems to me a little curious that so many people are interested in learning Greek. Unfortunately, in Greece, the use of Greek is overlooked and set aside more and more in favor of English particularly. The American (chiefly) cultural import becomes the cause for enough Greeks to forget the richness, the depth, and the history of the Greek language.” –Richard)

    • 24 Richard Barrett 29 October 2009 at 1:17 pm

      Ευχαριστώ πάρα πολύ! Συγγνώμη αν τα ελληνικά μου είναι κακά, μαθαίνω ακόμα. Όταν ήμουν στην Ελλάδα, μου φάνηκα ότι οι Έλληνες εκτιμούσαν την γλώσσα τους. Όμως, ήμουν εκεί ειδικά για να μαθαίνει τα ελληνικά, και ίσως ήμουν απλώς μαζί με τους σωστούς ανθρώπους!

      (What I think I said: “Thank you very much! Excuse me if my Greek is bad, I am still learning. When I was in Greece, it seemed to me that the Greek people were valuing their language. However, I was there specifically to learn Greek, and maybe I was simply with the right people!”)

  17. 25 Sean 29 October 2009 at 2:25 pm

    Your greek is very good (only counted two minor mistakes, nothing to fuss about, I made one myself while commenting before). It is true there are people here who respect the language and its history yet the problem lies more with the youth, that has been – largely – raised in a context where greek is considered somehow “old-fashioned”. I am 27 myself and I could already see signs of that trend in my own generation back in high school. Probably that might be due to the low standards of education greek children receive especially in high-school. I sincerely hope the tides can be turned. I am not saying this because I am greek myself, I am saying it because it is so: greek is one of the most beautiful and sophisticated (and ancient) languages that exist today.

    • 26 Richard Barrett 29 October 2009 at 4:49 pm

      Just for my own information, what were my two “minor mistakes” (and what was yours)?

      Welcome — I hope you stick around!

      • 27 Sean 29 July 2010 at 1:45 pm

        Sorry for the late reply (I tried to bookmark the page but obviously failed and then I could not remember the name of the blog – found it again yesterday and now saw my previous comments). My mistakes were:

        – “ωράια” instead of the correct “ωραία” (wrong intonation – the wrong version is pronounced differently because the diphthong “αι” is split but the word makes no sense so the mistake is trivial)
        – “περισσότερα” instead of the correct “περισσότερο” (first one neuter plural form of adjective, second adverb)

        Your mistakes were:
        – “φάνηκα” instead of the correct “φάνηκε” (first one singular first person second one singular third person – so you are trying to say “It seemed to me” but you say instead “I seemed to me” which is out of context and so it is easy for a reader to understand that it’s a mistake)
        – “μαθαίνει” instead of the correct “μαθαίνω” (first one singular third person, second one singular first. However it would be proper to use the version “μάθω” because “μαθαίνω” denotes an on-going process in the present, while “μάθω” denotes intention or final conclusion, that’s why it’s normally used in future clauses and with “για να” – “in order to”. “μαθαίνω” is not wrong in both cases but it’s used on special occasions when one is trying to emphasize the duration of the process).

      • 28 Richard Barrett 29 July 2010 at 3:52 pm

        Ha! Of course. Silly, obvious mistakes on my part. I will say that I intentionally used μαθαίνω instead of μάθω because it is a process with duration, but every time I do that I’m told by native speakers, “Yeah, I understand what you mean, but we don’t say it that way.” Thanks for the tips, and glad you came back.

      • 29 Sean 29 July 2010 at 4:14 pm

        Well, if you wanted to emphasize the fact that you are on the process of learning you could have written: “ήμουν εκεί ειδικά επειδή μαθαίνω τα ελληνικά” – “I was there specifically because I am learning greek” (you can notice I used continuous present in english because that’s the accurate translation) or else you could write: “ήμουν εκεί ειδικά, καθώς μαθαίνω τα ελληνικά” – instead of “because”, “as”. Also, on a side note, the article “τα” is quite correctly used in this context but it’s unusual when referring to a language with a neuter term like “ελληνικά, αγγλικά, γερμανικά”. It is only necessary – in this context – when you are referring to the language with a feminine term like “την ελληνική, την αγγλική, τη γερμανική” because in this case the word is an adjective denoting the word “γλώσσα” (which can be written or not, if not it’s meant) which is a definite term with feminine gender and thus requires the corresponding article (in accusative).

  18. 30 Mark J 2 November 2009 at 6:19 pm

    Hey —

    Thank you so much for all of these helpers – they are life savers. I was curious if you were planning on updating the website in the near future with more Units? If not, do you know any other help sources with answers/explanations to this book.

    Thanks again!

    • 31 Richard Barrett 2 November 2009 at 6:22 pm

      I’m glad they are so helpful! Unit 5 I hope to have up during Thanksgiving week, and I really do intend to write notes for the whole book, it’s just taking me longer than I originally thought because, well, it’s by necessity a side project.

  19. 32 f_can 28 November 2009 at 4:25 pm

    Greetings Mr. Barrett,

    I’m also a self-learner of Ancient Greek and I was delighted to discover your site.

    I have a request though: Can’t you at least get one unit done each week, so that in four months’ time we can actually have the answer key complete, thanks to you?

    I don’t mean to be rude, but if you could speed up the process, I’m sure every autodidact will be a lot happier.

    Kind regards with heartfelt thanks for all your efforts.

  20. 33 Christian 8 December 2009 at 12:09 pm

    That is one of the most pretentious comments I’ve ever heard. You are no no position to ask that. You should be thankful that he made any of them, rather than demand more. Anyways, I also wanted to thank Richard. This had been an invaluable tool. If you have time to do more, that would be excellent, however I understand life has a tendency to get in the way. Best wishes!

    • 34 Richard Barrett 8 December 2009 at 2:36 pm

      Thanks for the appreciation, Christian. I didn’t take offense to the request; I understand that I have taken longer on these than I intended. The simple reality is it’s a side project, and it’s not a side project anybody is paying me for, so it takes more of a backseat during busy times than it would otherwise. If all I were doing was an answer key, that would be one thing, but I’m trying to do more than that. At any rate, with the Christmas break coming up, I hope to get two or three more chapters done.

      • 35 Mark J 9 December 2009 at 6:42 pm

        Do you think it would be possible to post answer-keys up beforehand? The notes are really helpful, but if you put up a few answer keys, especially if you are pressed for time now, that could be really helpful.

        Thanks again so much!

  21. 36 natattatatt 28 January 2010 at 7:46 am

    this has helped me so much! thank you thank you thank you! i’m taking greek in school and we are on unit 9 now.. and let me just say, i’m not doing as well on the units you haven’t posted.. because apparently you’re a better teacher than mine! haha. thanks for spending your time on this and hopefully i get the hang of 9 soon (so hard!) 🙂

  22. 37 Nick 16 February 2010 at 12:02 am

    Thank you so much for posting these detailed notes and answers. I began going through the Hansen book in January and just finished unit V. I got stuck on the third exercise! This is a wonderful resource, and I look forward to looking through all of the notes.

  23. 38 Linda 22 February 2010 at 12:27 am

    Wow! Major round of applause to you for doing these notes and answer keys – and so many thanks! I am just beginning to learn Greek and it helps so much to be able to work through the drills and check the answers as I go, learning to notice and self-correct the mistakes. I haven’t read all the notes yet (just unit II so far), but I’ll definitely be doing that asap – I like how concise they are. Thanks so much!

  24. 39 Christine 31 March 2010 at 11:38 am

    HI! I just stumbled upon your page. THIS is awesome! I am planning to start teaching Greek again at the college level. My training was in Koine, but I have been able to read a little Classical. I love Mounce’s BBG book and plan to use it for the class I will be teaching; but I really enjoyed the exercises in H & Q’s book as well. So recently I decided that I would use some of the Hansen and Quinn stuff to supplement what we will do with Mounce’s stuff.
    I had questions on my translations and parsing for H & Q and felt a little inadequate on my knowledge. But now that I am reading your notes, I am getting it! Thanks for taking the time to do this and share with others.

  25. 40 Christine 31 March 2010 at 11:45 am

    HI again! I also had a question, what would you recommend for first and second year students to translate in the Church Fathers. Since you are a cantor, I thought you might have a really good suggestion on some readings. I would love to have my students get exposed to translating passages from the Fathers that would be perhaps something that helps illuminate their New Testament translations or help them understand the Greek Orthodox tradition. (Mounce has a couple of sentences from the Church Fathers in his workbook, but I would like some passages.)

    • 41 Richard Barrett 31 March 2010 at 12:06 pm

      Hi Christine! Thanks for your interest and support. There are two excellent readers out there for getting into patristics texts — Rod Decker’s Koine Greek Reader, which includes some Apostolic Fathers as well as some credal texts, and Rodney Whitacre’s Patristic Greek Reader, which starts with the Didache and works its way up to things like St. Athanasius’ On the Incarnation, excerpts from a homily of St. John Chrysostom’s, and even a little bit of St. Symeon the New Theologian. If you want me to make some more specific suggestions drop me a private e-mail — rrbarret [at] indiana [dot] edu.

      • 42 Christine 1 April 2010 at 7:15 am

        Thanks! I really appreciate you getting back to me so quickly; especially since it is Holy Week and I am sure you are super busy. (By the way we have a large Greek community down here in Mobile AL.) I am going to definitely look those two books up! I hope you don’t mind if I continue to ask you questions, I really am trying to brush up my old skills for teaching again. Like the old saying goes, if you don’t use it, you lose it.

      • 43 Richard Barrett 1 April 2010 at 11:51 pm

        By all means — ask me whatever questions you have! I may or may not be able to answer them, but I’ll do what I can.

      • 44 Christine 9 April 2010 at 11:56 am

        HI Richard! I was also wondering if you knew of anyone (or if you have translations) for the Readings from Hansen and Quinn. I would like to check my own translations. My parsing is good, but I’m not so sure on some of my translation work.

      • 45 Richard Barrett 9 April 2010 at 4:49 pm

        I don’t, but if you want to post questions here or e-mail them to me, I can try to help that way. Maybe if I ever get around to a “second edition” (which presumes me finishing a first edition) I can include that.

  26. 46 Sam 1 April 2010 at 4:37 pm

    Please do continue!

    I am struggling through H and Q . It is one of the only ones that uses the macrons which I find so important.

    Thank you so much for this wonderful labor. I love the book but wow is it hard to struggle through as a lay person. I made it to about Unit 4.

    Please post when you have new Units up so we can subscribe and use them.

    The gods would be so proud of you! 🙂

    • 47 Richard Barrett 1 April 2010 at 11:52 pm

      Glad it’s helpful! I hope to have the next unit up a week or so after Easter, but life has a way of intervening. Won’t be long, one way or the other.

  27. 48 Benna 10 April 2010 at 10:19 am

    I just want to say that this is extraordinary, your answer key to H and Q.

    I just finished CH 4 and your notes were amazing. I have had private tutoring in this and your notes are so much like my tutor’s instructions! I have been able to get even farther thanks to the notes and key.

    I have used many books- Athenaze, Mastronarde, etc. but H and Q is my fav because it has macrons and is a challenge. The only problem is the lack of answer key and teacher handbook…..what you have done is like both. It’s an answer key AND a teacher handbook.

    I would pay anywhere from $75-$100 for this manual – if you are ever able to contact Hansen and Fordham press, perhaps you can publish this and sell it.

    I hope that you are encouraged to complete this if life allows. Everyone I have ever met in the Classics world has been very giving and open and generous as you are, but I also hope you can take this further and publish it so that many more people- who really have voiced a need for H and Q answer key- can be as blessed and happy with this as I am!

    Thank you again.

    • 49 Richard Barrett 10 April 2010 at 10:28 am

      I’m glad it’s so useful! As I always tell people, there’s a button marked “Tip Jar” if you want to express some gratitude that way, but right now anybody who did would be the first. One way or the other, I appreciate the feedback and support. I hope to finish at least one, if not two, more units before Memorial Day Weekend, and if I wind up staying put for the summer, I might actually finish the book. We’ll see.

  28. 50 Pete 7 May 2010 at 1:40 am

    I’m slowly working my way through this book. I think it explains everything well, and have few problems, but every now and then there’s a sentence that I just can’t parse. Thank you for working on this one missing “feature”.

    (My current problem sentence is this one, from Unit 9, ex. 1.15:

    λιπόντες τὰ ὅπλα λόγοις κακὸν ποιῶμεν τοὺς δικαίους;

    Leaving the weapons, … ?? Are we to make? the unjust…what? How do λόγοις (means?) and κακὸν get involved?)

    • 51 Richard Barrett 7 May 2010 at 12:06 pm

      The trick here is that ποιέω takes a double accusative (see note on p. 247). So, “Leaving the weapons, are we to do a bad thing to the just (it’s δικαίους, not ἄδικους) men by means of words?” λιπόντες is a nominative aorist active participle that agrees with the unexpressed subject of ποιῶμεν “we”, you just have to decide what force you think makes sense. “Since (we are) leaving (simply, once and for all) the weapons…” “When (we are) leaving the weapons…” “Although (we are) leaving the weapons…” “After (we are) leaving the weapons…” or “Having left the weapons…” etc. You could also invoke the principle my first Greek teacher had, which is that an Attic Greek person, to express “Take the money and run,” would rather say, “Taking the money, run!” In that case, you could render it as “Are we to leave the weapons and do a bad thing to the just men by means of words?” or something like that.

      Does that help? I plan to get up to Unit 10 done by the end of the summer at least.

      • 52 Pete 10 May 2010 at 1:43 am

        Thank you! Yes, I knew about the double-accusative, wasn’t having a problem with the participle, and I strongly suspected λόγοις was a dative of means, but I thought “do a bad thing to the just” (oops, yes, it’s just, not unjust!) should be “κακὸν ποιῶμεν τοῖς δικαίοις”; I was trying to read it as “make the just bad” (i.e., lead them astray or something), but then couldn’t make sense of κακὸν being singular.

        Re: “taking the money, run!”, there’s a well-known real-life example in Leonidas’s challenge to the Persians at Thermopylae: “μολὼν, λαβέ!”

  29. 53 Peter 12 May 2010 at 2:47 am

    So, as I move on to chapter 10, here are my attempts at the English->Greek for chapter 9:
    1. ὧ φίλε, ὑπ’ ἐκεινῶν ἀδικῶν νεανιῶν τιμώμενος μὴ κακὰ ποιῇς τούτους μίκρους γέροντας.
    2. ἄλογός τοι αἴσχρα ποιεῖν· ὃς ἂν ἀνεὺ δίκης ἄλλας ἀδικῇ, δικαίᾳ ὑπὸ τῶν θέων βλαβήσεται.
    -or- ἄλογός τοι αἴσχρα ποιεῖν· ἀδικῶς ἄλλας ἀνεὺ δίκης, ὃς δικαίᾳ ὑπὸ τῶν θέων βλαβήσεται.
    3. μήτε τιμῶμεν μήτε ἀγαθὸν ποιῶμεν τᾶσδε τὰς γυναίκας αἳ σιγὴ ἐκείνας τὰς οἰκίας πεφυλάχασιν.
    -or- μήτε τιμῶμεν μήτε ἀγαθὸν ποιῶμεν τᾶσδε τὰς σιγὴ ἐκείνας τὰς οἰκίας φυλαξάσας γυναίκας
    4. πρὸ ἐκείνων τῶν ἀγώνων οἱ Ἑλλήνες τοὺς τ’ αἶγας καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα ταύταις ταῖς θέαις ἔθυσόν ὡς μὴ νικηθησόμενους.

    • 54 Richard Barrett 12 May 2010 at 1:58 pm

      General comment: double-check your breathing marks and accents. I’d also take a quick look at the summary of relative clauses on p. 756 to make sure you understand what’s being asked in terms of expressing relative clauses two different ways.

      If you don’t mind, I’m going to start by asking questions here rather than giving answers; you seem far enough along, at least to me, that it could be a useful exercise.

      1) Grammatically, this looks fine to me; just for grins, “honored” could be rendered as an aorist participle; what would that look like?

      2) Can you walk me through your reasoning for the following forms? ἄλογος, δικαίᾳ, and ἀδικῶς.

      3) Again, can you walk me through your reasoning for the form σιγὴ?

      4) What verb tense catches the meaning of “used to do…”? What would be another way of expressing “both… and”? What kind of grammatical construction is “in order that they might not be conquered”, and what are the different ways that construction can be expressed?

      • 55 Pete 12 May 2010 at 11:05 pm

        Thank you for taking the time to help me.

        1) τιμηθείς

        2) The subject of the clause is the placeholder “it”, but “illogical” is related to “it” by a copula, so ἄλογος is also nominative. δικαίᾳ is a dative of manner, and ἀδικῶς is nominative singular because the one doing the wronging is the singular “who(ever)” of the subject, and present because I interpreted the wronging as habitual. The fact that you’re asking the question leads me to believe I’m making some error here, but I can’t see it.

        3) σιγή was also intended to be a dative of manner: should be σιγῇ!

        4) I wanted the imperfect tense; it should have been ἔθυον, not ἔθυσον. “both…and” could have been “και…και…”. “In order that they might not be conquered” is a purpose clause; either ἵνα/ὡς/ὅπως (μὴ) with a subjunctive or optative verb depending on the tense of verb in the main clause (in this case, optative with an imperfect main verb: ἵνα μὴ νικηθεῖσαν or νικηθείησαν), or ὡς with a future participle (but it should have been νικηθησόμενος not -μενους)

      • 56 Richard Barrett 13 May 2010 at 3:21 am

        2) What’s the gender of ἄλογος, and what are your thoughts on why it is that gender? Is there another possible grammatical construction that might be used in place of δικαίᾳ? What is the uncontracted form of ἀδικῶς?

        4) If you’re going the ὡς + future participle route, with what does the participle need to agree? What is the gender, number, and case of that particular element in the sentence you’ve written?

  30. 57 Pete 13 May 2010 at 6:40 am

    Ah! It’s an adjective — the real subject is “an irrational thing”, which is neuter…it should be ἄλογον. The adverb would be δικαίως…and my dative should have been a noun, not an adjective: δικῇ! And ἀδικῶς should be ἀδικῶν!!

    4) Hmm…well, it’s οἱ Ἑλλήνες who are not-being-conquered, so I still think it should be masc. nom. plural. Oh, I see, I messed that up too…νικηθησόμενοι! (I was sitting here staring at it for quite a while, trying to think why it would be anything but masc. nom. pl., before I noticed that what I’d written was singular…duh!)

  31. 58 nanay 30 September 2010 at 5:05 am

    its almost too good to be true!
    i’ve been looking for something like this for ages
    this is truly a great thing that you are doing
    keep up the excellent work

  32. 59 MH 18 November 2010 at 4:52 pm

    Thanks for making your notes available! I’ve been making my own key as I worked through H + Q this past year. Now, I’m getting the opportunity to TA a bit, so am going back through my notes, and yours.

    I found a few little things in the Unit 5 key that you might want to change:
    #25: contrary to justice, not expectation
    third line of #27: from the shrine of the goddess

    Again, thanks for making your notes available. Sometimes H+Q sentences are a bit strange, so it’s good to have that second opinion available.

  33. 62 UM 10 February 2011 at 3:32 am

    Thanks a lot for all this info!! It’s very helpful. Do you plan on posting additional units? Thanks again

    • 63 Richard Barrett 11 February 2011 at 11:30 am

      I am working on additional units. It’s difficult at the moment, in the middle of the semester, to make it a priority. That said, I have suggested ways that people might be able to communicate to me that I should make it more of a priority.

  34. 64 Gordon Ross 25 May 2011 at 7:20 am

    Χαῖρε! I just discovered your HQ website via the Textkit forum. Wonderful of you to post so much help for students! I like the textbook, and I don’t like the textbook. LOL My strong preference is for the method used by Hans H. Ørberg to teach Latin in his _Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata_ materials, which, by the way, I’m using on my own. He presents an humorous, ongoing story with lots of reading text and many, many exercises using modern linguistic pedagogy (cloze, fill-in, transformation, question and answer, contrast, substitution, etc.). And, delightful wonder of wonders! NO translation exercises. Everything is done in Latin. So the focus is on reading, with the writing exercises as a means of teaching the grammar. I long for a similar Greek textbook. Am still looking. Anyway, I have been taking a look at HQ. It’s pretty good for a textbook that uses traditional pedagogy (with some welcome modern touches — introducing new grammatical forms using vocabulary that has already been learned). I’m so sorry that H and Q continued to use isolated words, phrases, and sentences in the first part of the book. Context means so much in Greek. I like the fact that so much Greek grammar is introduced so quickly. That is novel. Anyway, I’m now on Unit Two. Thank you for your comments and answer key! I’ve noticed what I think is an error or two in your Unit One answers and was wondering whether you would mind my offering possible corrections or improvements. If you don’t mind, how should I send them to you? Thanks again for all the work you have done to help us students!

    • 65 Richard Barrett 25 May 2011 at 8:20 am

      Salve! The Ørberg sounds not unlike the Athenaze textbook for Greek. The teacher I had doesn’t like Athenaze because, as he put it, “Students will make mistakes learning it that way,” but I find things about it very useful. I will say that I learned a lot more about grammar from H&Q within the first two weeks of Greek than I ever had in years of Italian, German, or French.

      I’ve no doubt that there are errors and things that can be improved — one man operation and all. I haven’t looked at the Unit I key in some time (probably 2 years if not more), and your comment prompted me to go back and check. I found one error (Greek to English #11); if you’ve got more and/or suggestions, by all means drop me a line — rrbarret ATSIGN

      Glad you find this useful, and hope you stick around!

  35. 66 Doug 15 July 2011 at 4:27 am

    Hi Richard,

    I’m a new student of Greek, and have been using HQ as a self-study text and really appreciate the resources you’ve made available here. I find the explanations in HQ so much more lucid than Mastronarde, for instance, but the lack of an answer key makes it less than ideal in my case. These notes really help to crystallize things – the extended explanations of your translations/answers are, in particular, extremely valuable.

    Having just finished up the fifth unit, I wanted to write a little note of thanks for these notes and answers. They also make the self-study experience feel a little less solitary. As I begin the sixth unit, however, I’m already feeling a little sad, even a little lonely, that your notes won’t be joining me on the journey ahead!

    Any plans to upload more of these this summer? Would be nice to have a travel companion (or perhaps more appropriately, a navigator) for another few legs of the trip.

    Thanks again,

  36. 67 Jamie 1 November 2011 at 7:50 pm


    Just wanted to express my gratitude for posting all of these answer keys. I think the best testament to their impact is the time it takes to scroll down all of the thank you’s posted above.

    You’re as much a part of my learning as old Hardy and Gerald! Thanks again.


    • 68 Richard Barrett 3 November 2011 at 6:13 pm

      Thanks very much, Jamie! That means a lot. I hope to have more time to do more answer keys in the future — it’s just hard to prioritize for them at the moment!

  37. 69 Jeanne Edna Thelwell 27 November 2011 at 2:01 pm

    Thank you very much for doing all this work. Even though I have the book, I was really not happy about doing exercises I couldn’t check. This is an invaluable addition.

  38. 70 Paul 27 March 2012 at 2:09 pm

    add more please

  39. 71 R. 28 May 2012 at 10:44 am

    I really appreciate everything you’ve done for the lovers of learning ancient Greek (who may not be in an institution) and who rely on answer keys to check their work and not fall off into an abyss of despair. I am unemployed at the moment, otherwise I would tip, but I was wondering if you had any idea when you might have more notes and answers from Unit vii onwards? Thanks!

    • 72 Richard Barrett 28 May 2012 at 1:44 pm

      So glad it’s useful! I plan on doing more, I really do, but at present i’m knee-deep in exam prep, my wife is due in about a month, and I’m about to be away for a few weeks. It is difficult right at the moment to prioritize the answer keys. I’ve suggested ways that people might be able to influence the prioritizing, but the deafening crickets I’ve gotten in response lead me to believe that that’s not really anything anybody is in much of a place to do. If everybody who has ever visited my blog for these keys even gave a dollar, I think the entire book would be done by this point based on the scale I suggested, but there we go.

  40. 73 Erik 9 September 2012 at 9:27 pm

    I’d like to thank you for your work; and as a self-learner, I’d like to say your work helped me a lot. Regards

  41. 74 Dou 10 January 2013 at 2:42 pm

    Great work! This making proofing my own work much easier. Thank you. I’m Looking forward to chapter 7 🙂

  42. 75 Anonymous 29 January 2013 at 4:09 pm

    Please move this project and all future conversations about its content to a passworded site. Autodidacticism and shared independent progress is fantastic and should be applauded, but crowdsourcing an answer key to an important in-print textbook should not be done in public as an invitation to classroom-based cheating.

    • 76 Richard Barrett 29 January 2013 at 4:16 pm

      Thanks for your suggestion; with respect, it’s not your call to make to tell me to move this. It is not your blog, and I’m reasonably certain that everything I’m doing here falls under the category of “fair use”, so my work on these keys is mine to do with as I see fit. If I were posting simply “the answers”, that would be one thing, but I’ve gone out of my way to present this as a learning tool that does far more than just provide “the answers” (which is part of why things have slowed down), and I would have to disagree that I’m inviting “classroom-based cheating”.

      If you wish to provide further comments under your own name, I will be happy to entertain them.

  43. 77 Maeve 20 February 2013 at 9:57 pm

    This has proved to be very helpful since I am teaching myself, and I look forward to the future units posted!

  44. 78 Max 2 July 2013 at 12:34 am

    Hi, just wanted to make a quick correction. Sentence 7 in Unit 4, should have the word “weapons” instead of “hoplites.” Thanks so much for the notes and answer key by the way, they are indispensable for my independent study.

  45. 80 Max 24 July 2013 at 5:57 pm

    Hi again, another possible correction. In chapter 7, sentence 30, you posit that H&Q made a typo, of agoito instead of agointo (sorry no Greek keyboard). However, it seems much more likely that the form would be agoite, as the elision just means the word has to end in a short vowel, o or e, and be 2nd pl pres, then agreeing with the participle as the implied subject (y’all, apparently female).
    Thanks again.

    • 81 Richard Barrett 24 July 2013 at 6:12 pm

      That’s an interesting thought, and it is certainly a possible solution. If we were dealing with a real text, I’d be hesitant because I’d expect such an idea to be expressed as an imperative rather than an optative; there’s also the principle of lectio difficilior (basically, because errors happen, if faced with two possibilities, go with the more difficult reading). But this is definitely a possibility, and I’ll add a note explaining it as such.

  46. 82 merwen 10 August 2013 at 11:22 am

    Hi. First off, a big thanks for all your work! It’s been a huge help. I have a question about the first phrase of number 27 in Unit 4’s Exercise 1. Could the phrase also be translated correctly as “the good young men”? I thought since there was an article-adjective pair that I had to translate it as a phrase and not a sentence…

    • 83 Richard Barrett 10 August 2013 at 1:34 pm

      Could also be translated correctly that way, yes, and looking at it again, that’s probably what H&Q want you to do; in practice, ἀγαθοί could be taken as a substantive use of the adjective (which is how I took it), in which case you’d translate it the way I did. Context would be make it clear. I’ll add a note. Thank you!

  47. 84 bondarev42 10 August 2013 at 1:59 pm

    Richard, not sure if you are still updating the answers, but I have spotted one or two slips. Hope you don’t mind my pointing them out.
    Unit 5, Ex. # 9: …τοῖς γὰρ ἀδίκοις δῶρα οὐκ ἐπέμπετο. You render this: “For he was not being sent gifts for unjust things.”

    The subject of ἐπέμπετο is actually δῶρα. “Gifts were not sent to, etc.”…

  48. 86 bondarev42 12 August 2013 at 4:22 pm

    UNIT 7, EX. # 7

    The Greek reads:

    ἐδούλευον οἳ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ οἰκίᾳ λειφθεῖεν.

    You render this:

    “Whoever used to work/was working in that house, they should be left behind.”

    And the explanation:

    “This is also a little tricky; it starts out making you think it’s a present contrafactual conditional sentence with a relative protasis, but the second clause is an optative of wish rather than the apodosis you would expect.

    This is in fact an instance of what HQ call “Past General Conditional Sentence with Relative Protasis” (p. 178, no.4)

    The protasis is: οἳ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ οἰκίᾳ λειφθεῖεν,
    The apodosis: ἐδούλευον

    Obviously, here the apodosis simply precedes the protasis. (i.e. this is NOT an optative of wish).

    I would translate this as:

    “If anyone was (ever) left (behind) in that house, they were a slave.”

  49. 87 bondarev42 12 August 2013 at 5:21 pm

    UNIT 7, EX. # 10.

    ὅς τοι τὸν χρυσὸν αἰσχρῶς ἔκλεψεν, ἐκεῖνον γραφὴν κλοπῆς ἂν ἐγράψαντο οἱ πολῖται.

    You translate:

    Whoever, let me tell you, had shamefully stolen the gold (but nobody did), the citizens would (now) be indicting that person on a charge of theft (but they are not).

    A slip here in the tense of the apodosis.

    ἔκλεψεν and ἂν ἐγράψαντο make this a PAST contrafactual. (“if anyone had stolen…the citizens would have indicted, etc…”)

  50. 88 bondarev42 12 August 2013 at 5:39 pm

    UNIT 7, EX. #11.

    …ἐκείνους οὖν γραψαίμεθα κλοπῆς.

    You have:

    “We should indict those (soldiers), then, (on a charge) of theft.”

    “Should” is incorrect.

    This is an optative of wish. “If only we would indict them…”

  51. 90 bondarev42 13 August 2013 at 1:49 pm

    Richard, would you prefer that I post corrections here, or email you them directly? If by email, then let me know what email address to use. Best, Bondarev

  52. 91 merwen 14 August 2013 at 4:20 pm

    Hi. Im working on Unit 5, and I completely see how your translation of number 9’s (first Exercise) second sentence is correct. But I translated it differently and I think maybe my translation could also be right. Can you look at it? I got “For gifts were not being sent to the unjust.” THANK YOU!

  53. 94 merwen 14 August 2013 at 5:59 pm

    New question. . Unit 5, Exercise 1, number 20: Could the second sentence also be translated as “For dear to the gods are the just.”?? Thanks.

  54. 96 Stephan 15 February 2014 at 9:38 am

    Thanks for supplying these answer keys. I have just started the H&Q book and completed the Unit 1. There seem to be some mistakes in your answer key for the exercises:

    I, 11. You wrote “The man on the island sends the men into battle” whereas it is his (or “the”) brothers that the men sends.

    II, 2. You wrote “ὁ ἄνθρωπος πέμπει τὸν τοὺ Ὁμήρου ἀδελφὸν τῇ ἀγορᾷ”, whereas it seems like “εἰς αγοράν” would be more appropriate, since the accusative conveys a sense of motion towards something. Also, it should have a macron over the ά, but I can’t figure out how to type one…

    II, 3 The τοὺ should be a τοῦ.

    Again, I am just beginning, but based on what I have read in the the book, these things jumped out at me.

    Best regards,

    • 97 Richard Barrett 15 February 2014 at 10:26 am

      Hi Stephan,

      Consulting my master document, these were fixed some years ago. I may need to go through and make sure that all of currently posted files are up to date. I’ll do that here soon. Thanks for the heads up!


  55. 98 Stephan 2 March 2014 at 8:16 pm

    Hi Richard,

    The mistakes in units 2-4 are minor, but there seems to be a more substantial problem with the translation of Exercise II.3. You use the pluperfect indicative passive, ἐπέπεμψο, stating this in your explanation as well, where it is completely out of place. While, in English, the past contra-factual sounds like a pluperfect, this is not the case in Greek. The Greek past contra-factual requires the aorist indicative in both the protasis and the apodosis, which, in this case, would be the aorist indicative passive, ἐπέμφθης.

    Also, in III.2 you use the genitive of personal agent where the dative of personal agent is called for.

    Also, in IV. 4, I wonder why you use the plural τοῖς κακοῖς instead of the singular. This isn’t necessarily a mistake, I’m just wondering…

    So let me know if it is actually I who am mistaken… when I find a disagreement between my answers and yours, I check to see which one of is in the wrong. When I am the guilty party, no one knows about it because I didn’t put an answer key on the internet. 😉


    • 99 Stephan 2 March 2014 at 8:18 pm

      Excuse me, I failed to specify – Exercise II of Unit 5.

    • 100 Richard Barrett 5 March 2014 at 12:50 pm

      Yep yep, you’re right on — V.II.2 and 3 are boneheaded errors, and I am grateful that you bring them to my attention. As for plural τοῖς κακοῖς in 4, “Men under the power of the bad are unjust”, it seems to me to be implicit that “the bad” in this case is understood to be “the bad men”, not “the bad” as a singular noun. ὑπὸ τῷ κακῷ would make sense in Greek as “under the power of badness/evil” (you see it in the Greek Lord’s Prayer — ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ, “deliver us from evil” or “deliver us from the evil one” depending on how you want to read it), but if English is the source language, that’s the only way I can make sense of that sentence.

  1. 1 Newly posted: Hansen and Quinn, notes and answers, Unit VIII | Leitourgeia kai Qurbana: Contra den Zeitgeist Trackback on 1 May 2013 at 2:19 pm

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